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MicroPython - a lean and efficient Python implementation for microcontrollers and constrained systems


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The MicroPython project

MicroPython Logo

This is the MicroPython project, which aims to put an implementation of Python 3.x on microcontrollers and small embedded systems. You can find the official website at micropython.org.

WARNING: this project is in beta stage and is subject to changes of the code-base, including project-wide name changes and API changes.

MicroPython implements the entire Python 3.4 syntax (including exceptions, with, yield from, etc., and additionally async/await keywords from Python 3.5 and some select features from later versions). The following core datatypes are provided: str(including basic Unicode support), bytes, bytearray, tuple, list, dict, set, frozenset, array.array, collections.namedtuple, classes and instances. Builtin modules include os, sys, time, re, and struct, etc. Some ports have support for _thread module (multithreading), socket and ssl for networking, and asyncio. Note that only a subset of Python 3 functionality is implemented for the data types and modules.

MicroPython can execute scripts in textual source form (.py files) or from precompiled bytecode (.mpy files), in both cases either from an on-device filesystem or "frozen" into the MicroPython executable.

MicroPython also provides a set of MicroPython-specific modules to access hardware-specific functionality and peripherals such as GPIO, Timers, ADC, DAC, PWM, SPI, I2C, CAN, Bluetooth, and USB.

Getting started

See the online documentation for the API reference and information about using MicroPython and information about how it is implemented.

We use GitHub Discussions as our forum, and Discord for chat. These are great places to ask questions and advice from the community or to discuss your MicroPython-based projects.

For bugs and feature requests, please raise an issue and follow the templates there.

For information about the MicroPython pyboard, the officially supported board from the original Kickstarter campaign, see the schematics and pinouts and documentation.

Contributing

MicroPython is an open-source project and welcomes contributions. To be productive, please be sure to follow the Contributors' Guidelines and the Code Conventions. Note that MicroPython is licenced under the MIT license, and all contributions should follow this license.

About this repository

This repository contains the following components:

  • py/ -- the core Python implementation, including compiler, runtime, and core library.
  • mpy-cross/ -- the MicroPython cross-compiler which is used to turn scripts into precompiled bytecode.
  • ports/ -- platform-specific code for the various ports and architectures that MicroPython runs on.
  • lib/ -- submodules for external dependencies.
  • tests/ -- test framework and test scripts.
  • docs/ -- user documentation in Sphinx reStructuredText format. This is used to generate the online documentation.
  • extmod/ -- additional (non-core) modules implemented in C.
  • tools/ -- various tools, including the pyboard.py module.
  • examples/ -- a few example Python scripts.

"make" is used to build the components, or "gmake" on BSD-based systems. You will also need bash, gcc, and Python 3.3+ available as the command python3 (if your system only has Python 2.7 then invoke make with the additional option PYTHON=python2). Some ports (rp2 and esp32) additionally use CMake.

Supported platforms & architectures

MicroPython runs on a wide range of microcontrollers, as well as on Unix-like (including Linux, BSD, macOS, WSL) and Windows systems.

Microcontroller targets can be as small as 256kiB flash + 16kiB RAM, although devices with at least 512kiB flash + 128kiB RAM allow a much more full-featured experience.

The Unix and Windows ports allow both development and testing of MicroPython itself, as well as providing lightweight alternative to CPython on these platforms (in particular on embedded Linux systems).

The "minimal" port provides an example of a very basic MicroPython port and can be compiled as both a standalone Linux binary as well as for ARM Cortex M4. Start with this if you want to port MicroPython to another microcontroller. Additionally the "bare-arm" port is an example of the absolute minimum configuration, and is used to keep track of the code size of the core runtime and VM.

In addition, the following ports are provided in this repository:

  • cc3200 -- Texas Instruments CC3200 (including PyCom WiPy).
  • esp32 -- Espressif ESP32 SoC (including ESP32S2, ESP32S3, ESP32C3).
  • esp8266 -- Espressif ESP8266 SoC.
  • mimxrt -- NXP m.iMX RT (including Teensy 4.x).
  • nrf -- Nordic Semiconductor nRF51 and nRF52.
  • pic16bit -- Microchip PIC 16-bit.
  • powerpc -- IBM PowerPC (including Microwatt)
  • qemu-arm -- QEMU-based Arm emulated target (for testing)
  • qemu-riscv -- QEMU-based RISC-V emulated target (for testing)
  • renesas-ra -- Renesas RA family.
  • rp2 -- Raspberry Pi RP2040 (including Pico and Pico W).
  • samd -- Microchip (formerly Atmel) SAMD21 and SAMD51.
  • stm32 -- STMicroelectronics STM32 family (including F0, F4, F7, G0, G4, H7, L0, L4, WB)
  • webassembly -- Emscripten port targeting browsers and NodeJS.
  • zephyr -- Zephyr RTOS.

The MicroPython cross-compiler, mpy-cross

Most ports require the MicroPython cross-compiler to be built first. This program, called mpy-cross, is used to pre-compile Python scripts to .mpy files which can then be included (frozen) into the firmware/executable for a port. To build mpy-cross use:

$ cd mpy-cross$ make

External dependencies

The core MicroPython VM and runtime has no external dependencies, but a given port might depend on third-party drivers or vendor HALs. This repository includes several submodules linking to these external dependencies. Before compiling a given port, use

$ cd ports/name$ make submodules

to ensure that all required submodules are initialised.

Portable OpenSSH


Portable OpenSSH

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OpenSSH is a complete implementation of the SSH protocol (version 2) for secure remote login, command execution and file transfer. It includes a client ssh and server sshd, file transfer utilities scp and sftp as well as tools for key generation (ssh-keygen), run-time key storage (ssh-agent) and a number of supporting programs.

This is a port of OpenBSD's OpenSSH to most Unix-like operating systems, including Linux, OS X and Cygwin. Portable OpenSSH polyfills OpenBSD APIs that are not available elsewhere, adds sshd sandboxing for more operating systems and includes support for OS-native authentication and auditing (e.g. using PAM).

Documentation

The official documentation for OpenSSH are the man pages for each tool:

Stable Releases

Stable release tarballs are available from a number of download mirrors. We recommend the use of a stable release for most users. Please read the release notes for details of recent changes and potential incompatibilities.

Building Portable OpenSSH

Dependencies

Portable OpenSSH is built using autoconf and make. It requires a working C compiler, standard library and headers.

libcrypto from either LibreSSL or OpenSSL may also be used. OpenSSH may be built without either of these, but the resulting binaries will have only a subset of the cryptographic algorithms normally available.

zlib is optional; without it transport compression is not supported.

FIDO security token support needs libfido2 and its dependencies and will be enabled automatically if they are found.

In addition, certain platforms and build-time options may require additional dependencies; see README.platform for details about your platform.

Building a release

Releases include a pre-built copy of the configure script and may be built using:

tar zxvf openssh-X.YpZ.tar.gzcd openssh./configure # [options]make && make tests

See the Build-time Customisation section below for configure options. If you plan on installing OpenSSH to your system, then you will usually want to specify destination paths.

Building from git

If building from git, you'll need autoconf installed to build the configure script. The following commands will check out and build portable OpenSSH from git:

git clone https://github.com/openssh/openssh-portable # or https://anongit.mindrot.org/openssh.gitcd openssh-portableautoreconf./configuremake && make tests

Build-time Customisation

There are many build-time customisation options available. All Autoconf destination path flags (e.g. --prefix) are supported (and are usually required if you want to install OpenSSH).

For a full list of available flags, run ./configure --help but a few of the more frequently-used ones are described below. Some of these flags will require additional libraries and/or headers be installed.

FlagMeaning
--with-pamEnable PAM support. OpenPAM, Linux PAM and Solaris PAM are supported.
--with-libeditEnable libedit support for sftp.
--with-kerberos5Enable Kerberos/GSSAPI support. Both Heimdal and MIT Kerberos implementations are supported.
--with-selinuxEnable SELinux support.

Development

Portable OpenSSH development is discussed on the openssh-unix-dev mailing list (archive mirror). Bugs and feature requests are tracked on our Bugzilla.

Reporting bugs

Non-security bugs may be reported to the developers via Bugzilla or via the mailing list above. Security bugs should be reported to [email protected].

TLS/SSL and crypto library


Welcome to the OpenSSL Project

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OpenSSL is a robust, commercial-grade, full-featured Open Source Toolkit for the TLS (formerly SSL), DTLS and QUIC (currently client side only) protocols.

The protocol implementations are based on a full-strength general purpose cryptographic library, which can also be used stand-alone. Also included is a cryptographic module validated to conform with FIPS standards.

OpenSSL is descended from the SSLeay library developed by Eric A. Young and Tim J. Hudson.

The official Home Page of the OpenSSL Project is www.openssl.org.

Table of Contents

Overview

The OpenSSL toolkit includes:

  • libssl an implementation of all TLS protocol versions up to TLSv1.3 (RFC 8446), DTLS protocol versions up to DTLSv1.2 (RFC 6347) and the QUIC (currently client side only) version 1 protocol (RFC 9000).

  • libcrypto a full-strength general purpose cryptographic library. It constitutes the basis of the TLS implementation, but can also be used independently.

  • openssl the OpenSSL command line tool, a swiss army knife for cryptographic tasks, testing and analyzing. It can be used for

    • creation of key parameters
    • creation of X.509 certificates, CSRs and CRLs
    • calculation of message digests
    • encryption and decryption
    • SSL/TLS/DTLS and client and server tests
    • QUIC client tests
    • handling of S/MIME signed or encrypted mail
    • and more...

Download

For Production Use

Source code tarballs of the official releases can be downloaded from www.openssl.org/source. The OpenSSL project does not distribute the toolkit in binary form.

However, for a large variety of operating systems precompiled versions of the OpenSSL toolkit are available. In particular, on Linux and other Unix operating systems, it is normally recommended to link against the precompiled shared libraries provided by the distributor or vendor.

We also maintain a list of third parties that produce OpenSSL binaries for various Operating Systems (including Windows) on the Binaries page on our wiki.

For Testing and Development

Although testing and development could in theory also be done using the source tarballs, having a local copy of the git repository with the entire project history gives you much more insight into the code base.

The official OpenSSL Git Repository is located at git.openssl.org. There is a GitHub mirror of the repository at github.com/openssl/openssl, which is updated automatically from the former on every commit.

A local copy of the Git Repository can be obtained by cloning it from the original OpenSSL repository using

git clone git://git.openssl.org/openssl.git

or from the GitHub mirror using

git clone https://github.com/openssl/openssl.git

If you intend to contribute to OpenSSL, either to fix bugs or contribute new features, you need to fork the OpenSSL repository openssl/openssl on GitHub and clone your public fork instead.

git clone https://github.com/yourname/openssl.git

This is necessary because all development of OpenSSL nowadays is done via GitHub pull requests. For more details, see Contributing.

Build and Install

After obtaining the Source, have a look at the INSTALL file for detailed instructions about building and installing OpenSSL. For some platforms, the installation instructions are amended by a platform specific document.

Specific notes on upgrading to OpenSSL 3.x from previous versions can be found in the ossl-guide-migration(7ossl) manual page.

Documentation

README Files

There are some README.md files in the top level of the source distribution containing additional information on specific topics.

The OpenSSL Guide

There are some tutorial and introductory pages on some important OpenSSL topics within the OpenSSL Guide.

Manual Pages

The manual pages for the master branch and all current stable releases are available online.

Demos

The are numerous source code demos for using various OpenSSL capabilities in the demos subfolder.

Wiki

There is a Wiki at wiki.openssl.org which is currently not very active. It contains a lot of useful information, not all of which is up-to-date.

License

OpenSSL is licensed under the Apache License 2.0, which means that you are free to get and use it for commercial and non-commercial purposes as long as you fulfill its conditions.

See the LICENSE.txt file for more details.

Support

There are various ways to get in touch. The correct channel depends on your requirement. See the SUPPORT file for more details.

Contributing

If you are interested and willing to contribute to the OpenSSL project, please take a look at the CONTRIBUTING file.

Legalities

A number of nations restrict the use or export of cryptography. If you are potentially subject to such restrictions, you should seek legal advice before attempting to develop or distribute cryptographic code.

Copyright

Copyright (c) 1998-2024 The OpenSSL Project Authors

Copyright (c) 1995-1998 Eric A. Young, Tim J. Hudson

All rights reserved.